In 1958, one year after nine Black students made national and international news when they desegregated Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, desegregation activists in Harlem organized their own protest.
Camp Jened was a private camp, and it charged campers’ families for attendance.
For Camp Jened to be accessible to disabled children and adults, staff and counselors had to work well with campers.
Camp Jened was located in the northern Catskills, on over 250 acres (which is about ⅓ the size of Central Park, or as big as 250 football fields) with 22 buildings near the town of Hunter, New York.
Harlem residents like Ella Baker and Mae Mallory, alongside other parents and community members in Brooklyn and in Jamaica, Queens, pushed the New York City Board of Education to integrate their schools.
In its 1954 decision in Brown vs. Board of Education, the US Supreme Court ruled that school segregation was unconstitutional because separate schools for Black children were “inherently unequal.
Ella Baker was an influential organizer in New York City struggles against segregated schools, police brutality, voting restrictions, and more.
By the 1940s, New York City schools frequently used intelligence tests to decide which kind of schooling a child needed.
Italian immigrant Leonard Covello was the principal of East Harlem’s Benjamin Franklin High School, an all-boys school.
In the 1930s and 1940s, Benjamin Franklin High School was a dynamic place.
Benjamin Franklin High School students came together in clubs that celebrated their cultural identities, like Club Borinquen and clubs focused on Italian-American culture.
On April 16, 1937, Lucile Spence and the Teachers Union of New York organized a conference at the Hotel Pennsylvania in downtown Manhattan to discuss schools in Harlem.
On March 19, 1935, rumors spread through Harlem that police had beaten a young man to death after they arrested him for allegedly stealing a knife from a local store.
School zones establish where students go to school, often on the basis of where they live.
Please note: This is work in progress. Please keep that in mind as you read.
In March 1925, The Survey Graphic published a special issue.
The Brownies’ Book included different kinds of writing, visual art, and photography by adults.
The NAACP and W.E.B. Du Bois created The Brownies’ Book to speak directly to Black children about the world and their lives.
Here are a few pages from the first issue of the magazine.
In 1905, French psychologist and educator Albert Binet created a tool that he hoped would help to identify and understand children who were struggling in school.