Judith (Judy) Heumann was one of tens of thousands of children who contracted polio during outbreaks in the late 1940s and early 1950s and became physically disabled.
Many major changes in education have come through federal legislation.
During the “Harlem Nine”’s struggle to integrate schools in New York City, multiple newspapers, including the New York Times and Amsterdam News, published photographs of Mae Mallory with her daughter Patricia.
On October 28, 1958, in two separate cases, the Board of Education charged the “Harlem Nine” parents with violating the state law requiring parents to send their children to school.
In 1958, one year after nine Black students made national and international news when they desegregated Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, desegregation activists in Harlem organized their own protest.
Mrs. Elizabeth Cisco worked for more than five years, with her husband and on her own, to fight for educational equality and desegregation.
Mrs. Cisco’s activism brought attention to segregated schooling in New York, and the state adopted a new law that ended legal segregation in schools.
Samuel B. Cisco, a Black man, lived in Jamaica, in Queens County.