Mr. Louis Schuker, the principal at Jamaica High, had a long talk with me and Coach Ellis.
Puerto Ricans became citizens of the United States in 1917, as part of the US’s claiming control of the island.
Many major changes in education have come through federal legislation.
Statement by Martin H. Gerry, Director, Office for Civil Rights, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, excerpts
In 1977, the New York City Board of Education was the focus of the “largest civil rights investigation of a public educational institution ever undertaken.
The late 1960s and early 1970s saw campus activism around the United States, for social change and against the Vietnam War.
In 1970, about one quarter of all New York City public school students were Puerto Rican.
Organizing in the early 1960s by the Citywide Committee on Integration and by Reverend Milton Galamison had increased public attention to the “600” schools.
Among New York City students with disability labels today, most are in the category of “learning disability.
The 1965 boycott targeted segregation in New York City’s junior high schools and “600” schools.
In the fall of 1964, months after the massive February 1964 boycott, Reverend Milton Galamison and the Citywide Committee on Integration launched another boycott.
In late 1963, The Amsterdam News reported on allegations that teachers and administrators at PS 614 in Brooklyn, one of the city’s “600” schools.
By the 1940s, New York City schools frequently used intelligence tests to decide which kind of schooling a child needed.
State institutions grew throughout New York state after the founding of the New York Asylum in 1851 and into the mid-20th century.
Scholar W.E.B. DuBois was also an editor of The Crisis, a magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (or NAACP).
The US Army offered up its recruits as a test population for the new intelligence tests.
In 1905, French psychologist and educator Albert Binet created a tool that he hoped would help to identify and understand children who were struggling in school.
Henry Goddard was a psychologist living and working in New Jersey.
A school for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities opened on Randall’s Island in the East River in the 1860s - alongside the city’s almshouse, hospitals, and prisons.
At the beginning of the 20th century, New York City required more and more students to attend school and prohibited them from working.
Special education classes for children with intellectual disabilities were pioneered in New York City by a social welfare reformer, Elizabeth Farrell.